Technical actions: observance of fire-prevention rules and norms at design of buildings, at the device of electricity cables and the equipment, heating, ventilation, lighting, the correct placement of the equipment.
Sprinkler installation represents the branched system of pipes filled with water and equipped with sprinkler heads. Exhaust outlets of sprinkler heads are closed by fusible locks which raspaivatsya at influence of certain temperatures (345, 366, 414 and 455 K). Water under pressure quits the system an opening of a head and irrigates designs of the room and the equipment.
Stationary installations are intended for suppression of the fires in an initial stage of their emergence without participation of the person. Are subdivided on water, foamy, gas, powder, steam. Can be automatic and manual with remote control.
Water is the good ognegasyashchy means possessing the following advantages: the cooling action, dilution of gas mixture the ferry (at water evaporation its volume increases by 1700 times), mechanical impact on a flame, availability and low cost, a chemical neutrality.
Temperature of spontaneous ignition characterizes the minimum temperature of substance at which there is a sharp increase in speed of exothermic reactions which is coming to an end with emergence of ardent burning.
Features of character and the mode lead robots, considerable intellectual tension to change at workers of VTs of a functional condition of the central nervous system, nervously – the muscular device of hands during the work with the keyboard. Irrational design and placement of elements of a workplace cause the necessity of support of an unsatisfactory working pose. The long discomfort leads to increase in tension of muscles and causes development of the general fatigue and decrease in working capacity.
Workplaces with VDT and PEVM in halls of electronic computers or in rooms with sources of harmful production factors have to be stirred in the isolated cabins with organized air exchange.
Allocate three main types of self-acceleration of chemical reaction when burning: thermal, chain and chain and thermal. The thermal mechanism is connected with exothermicity of process of oxidation and increase of speed of chemical reaction with temperature increase. Chain acceleration of reaction is connected with a catalysis of transformations which is carried out by intermediate products of transformations. Real processes of burning are carried out, as a rule, on the mechanism combined (chain and thermal).
The manual fire tool is a tool for a dehiscence and a razbiraniye of designs and carrying out a wrecking when clearing fire. Treat them: hooks, loma, axes, buckets, shovels, scissors for metal cutting. The tool is placed on a visible and available place at stands and boards.
Shortcomings: oil products emerge and continue to burn on a water surface; water possesses high conductivity therefore it cannot be applied to suppression of the fires on electroinstallations energized.
Temperature limits of ignition of of temperature at which saturated steam of substance forms in this oxidizing environment of concentration, equal according to the lower and top concentration limits of ignition of liquids.
Ignition of liquid can happen only if over its surface there is a mix of vapors with the air in a certain quantitative ratio corresponding to the lower temperature limit of ignition.
The greatest speed of burning is observed in pure oxygen. At reduction of the content of oxygen in air burning stops. Burning at sufficient and nadmerny concentration of an oxidizer is called full, and at its shortage – incomplete.
Production rooms in which for work VDT and PEVM (dispatching, operator, settlement are used mainly, etc.) should not border on rooms in which noise levels and vibrations exceed the normalized values (mechanical shops, workshops, etc.).
Drencher installations represent system of pipelines on which are located special with open exhaust outlets with a diameter of 8, 10 and 12,7 mm of bladed or rozetochny type, the areas of a floor calculated on an irrigation to 12 sq.m.