However negative result - the same result. Was not in the XVII century of a little noticeable thinker who did not define the position to a valuable perspective which disturbed as a splinter without keeping within a strict framework of panstsiyentistsky mentality.
Thus, at the corresponding stages of self-realization of absolute idea in gegelevsky system there is a substantial analysis of forms not only knowledge, but also values and estimates which specific distinction Hegel sees, calling them the "highest", but tries to include nevertheless them in a logical row everything the becoming complicated forms and types of uniform cognitive activity. For this purpose it is compelled even to break the "triad" principle of creation of system that was most visually shown in it "The doctrine about concept" (the third section "Logic Sciences").
In the second half of the XIX century appeared and there were to the forefront axiological, smyslozhiznenny philosophies which the social and economic phenomena, the facts and events try to explain not simply, and to open their internal, the spiritual and valuable contents, obvious insolvency of the gnoseological philosophy which surely explained even imperceptible rushes of spirit with logic of relationships of cause and effect of events of the outside world was One of the reasons of emergence. It is natural that similar reorientation of philosophy required also the new categorial device.
Developing a problem of activity of the person as subject of knowledge, Kant not only opposed tsennostnopraktichesky consciousness theoretical, but also brought the first out of gnoseology limits. As a result, the world of the person with his incompatible abilities of knowledge and desire was as if broken off on kingdoms of mechanical need and moral freedom of abstract knowledge and cultural wealth incoherent among themselves. The ideal and sense of human life on real and due as Kant philosophy to gnoseology ("The critic of pure reason" 178 and ethics ("The critic of practical reason" 17 broke up
According to G. Kogen, the truth, comes not from compliance of knowledge of reality, and from the ethical standards and values introduced in knowledge. Therefore, for example, the "identity" defining the principle of a continuity of thinking is inherently anything other as the benefit or values. Value also provides interrelation of three actually philosophical sciences: logic, ethics, an esthetics in justification of unity and integrity of spiritual culture.
The cult of scientific knowledge to become comprehensive ("Knowledge force") is not present doubts in omnipotence of science, including for a happy reorganization of human life. Dispute goes only about knowledge sources yes the most priyemleny criteria of truth. Therefore the valuable and estimated judgments not subject to any of known gnoseological criteria and methods of verification were superfluous and caused quite clear irritation of new philosophers and scientists.
Ancient Greek ethics gave practically all set of moral valuable orientations or models behavior of people in society: Democritus and Aristotle called for ensuring happiness of people as supreme value; Aristipp cultivated hedonism (sensual pleasures); Antisfen and Diogenes demanded to reduce needs of the person to a natural fundamental principle (asceticism); Socrates identified virtues and knowledge. His views received the name as the moralizing intellectualism; Frasimakh and other younger sophists absolutized a place and a role of individual interests, willfulness of the personality (voluntarism); Platon focused on contemplate and spiritual activity, and his followers - neoplatonik - demanded moral and cleaning asceticism, etc.
In the most general view of value have three features: first, they are characterized at the same time as objective and subjective; secondly, all that is represented to people positive, makes sense only owing to existence of the antipode; thirdly, the ratio between contrasts is limited to some subjectively defined limit beyond which discussion about values loses the meaning.
Conditions of public life the need of coordination of individual needs of people created system of the moral values regulating in combination with esthetic values the maintenance of the public relations (communications) in each social group and society in general. This party of values is studied by ethics.